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A

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A coincidence of a response and a reinforcing event (e.g., in certain programs designed to establish a discrimination, the appearance of the discriminative stimulus may coincide with a response in its absence).
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A process in which a response which frequently precedes a reinforced response shares in the effect of the reinforcement in such a way that the whole sequence becomes a stable part of the organism's behavior. A form of superstitious behavior (q.v.).
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Objective demonstration and communication of the effectiveness of a given Program. functional relations, behavioral outcomes, cost benefit, consumer satisfaction, and so on.
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The extent to which observed values approximate the "true" state of nature.
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The extent to which the response meets standards or is correct.
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The addition of new behavior to an organism's repertoire. The behavior may be a discriminated operant, a topographically complex operant, a conditional reflex relation, or the performance controlled by a schedule; thus, the term may refer to the change in performance caused by any change in contingencies. Cf. LEARNING REPERTOIRE.
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A single subject or intensive experimental design that involves. (1) Obtaining pretreatment measures (baseline) of several different behaviors; (2) applying the intervention or experimental procedure to one of the behaviors until it is changed substantially while continuing to record the baseline measures of the other behaviors-, (3) applying the intervention to a second behavior as in item 2, and so on. This procedure is continued until it becomes apparent that each behavior changes concurrently with the intervention.
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A single subject or intensive experimental design that involves. (1) collecting baselines on the same behavior of several different individuals; (2) applying the intervention first with one individual while the baseline conditions are continued with the other individuals; and (3) applying the intervention to the second individual's behavior as in item 2. This procedure is continued until it becomes apparent that each individual's behavior changes current with the intervention.
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A single subject or intensive experimental design that involves. (1) Collecting baselines on a behavior of one or more individuals across different situations; (2) testing the effects of the intervention (independent variable) first in one situation while the baseline conditions are continued through the other situations; and (3) applying the intervention in the second situation as in item 2. This procedure is continued until it becomes apparent that behavior changes systematically only in the situation in which the intervention is applied.
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Behavior which changes. Running, talking, and writing are active because we can see them progress and change. Even "thinking" is active because the thinker can "observe" his or her thoughts changing. However, "paying attention" and "sitting" are not active because they do not specify change.

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