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A

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A prompt or discriminative stimulus that is not usually present in the environment. Because an artificial stimulus is intrusive, it should be faded or gradually eliminated before the learner has been judged to have achieved of the goal. (E.g., verbal instructions serve as artificial stimuli as a student learns a new motor skill and are faded as the skill is refined.)
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A reinforcer not usually present in the natural setting or not a natural consequence of the behavior. For example, trinket rewards serve as artificial reinforcers in many school programs.
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see CONTRIVED REINFORCER, EXTRINSIC REINFORCER
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In the Darwinian account of evolution, the variety of selection practiced by humans, in selective breeding in horticulture, animal husbandry, etc. Cf. NATURAL SELECTION
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see CONTIGUITY
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Maximal level of responding. Often used in describing rate and level of learning in respondent conditioning in which a brief CS presentation is followed by the US after some fixed, extended time period (typically applied in to learning in the Rescorla-Wagner Model). Cf TEMPORAL CONDITIONING.
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Discriminative responding based on some stimulus or stimulus property. An organism is said to attend to a stimulus or stimulus property when variation of that stimulus or stimulus property changes behavior (e.g., a pigeon discriminating blue light from its absence is said to attend to color rather than brightness if variations in wavelength but not intensity change its performance). Cf. DISCRIMINATION, FUNCTIONAL STIMULUS.
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A predisposition to behave in a certain way . A positive attitude toward science is a predisposition to behave in certain ways regarding science, including saying certain kinds of things, spending money or time on science, and so on.
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Episodic memory. See REMEMBERING
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A unit of verbal behavior that depends on other verbal behavior for its occurrence and that modifies the effects of that other verbal behavior on the listener. Descriptive autoclitics involve discriminations of one's own behavior, as when the word not depends on a mismatch between what one is inclined to say and the appropriateness of saying it; including not in the statement cancels some of its effects on the listener. Relational autoclitics involve verbal units that are coordinated with other units in such a way that they cannot stand alone, as when plurals depend on quantitative features of events or grammatical tenses depend on temporal features; novel verbal behavior is sometimes the product of novel combinations of such units occasioned by novel circumstances.

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