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A

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A description of data that indicates the extent to which values in one subset of a series predict values of another subset. Also referred to as serial dependency.
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The maintenance of autoshaped responding by continuing contingent stimulus-reinforcer relations. In negative automaintenance, the contingent stimulus-reinforcer relation operates on trials without responses, but the reinforcer is omitted on trials with responses. Cf. AUTOSHAPING.
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A reinforcer related to a response in such a way that it is ordinarily produced automatically by the response (e.g., as in the relation between certain sexual activities and orgasm). Cf. CONTRIVED REINFORCER, INTRINSIC REINFORCER, PRIMARY REINFORCER.
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A respondent conditioning procedure that generates skeletal responses. For example, a key light is turned on a few seconds before grain is presented to a pigeon. After several pairings of key light and grain, the bird begins to peck the key. This effect was first reported as autoshaping, an automatic way to teach pigeons to key peck.
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A respondent procedure that generates skeletal responses. In the most common example, a pigeon's pecks on a key are engendered by contingent presentations of a key light and a feeder; a fixed key-light duration is followed by food, which is not presented at other times. In some procedures, pecks on the key, once they occur, produce food immediately rather than at the offset of the key light. CE AUTOMAINTENANCE.
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In the metaphor of memory storage and retrieval, the status of an item that has been stored; if it is stored, it is said to be available whether or not it can be retrieved. Any retrieved item is always both available and accessible; an unretrieved item might be either unavailable or available but inaccessible. CE ACCESSIBILM.
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A form of sensitization training in which a stimulus that arouses an inappropriate positive response is paired with an aversive stimulus. Used especially in the treatment of drug abuse and criminal sexual behavior such as pedophilia.
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negative reinforcer. Any stimulus, event. or condition whose termination immediately following a response and increases the frequency of that response.
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See specific cases. ESCAPE, AVOIDANCE, PUNISHMENT, PREAVERSIVE STIMULUS.
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A stimulus, also called a punisher, that has the effect of decreasing the strength (e.g., rate) of a behavior when it is presented as a consequence of (is contingent on) that behavior; a stimulus that the individual will actively work to avoid. A stimulus, also called a negative reinforcer, the contingent removal of which results in an increase in the rate of the behavior. Organisms will work to avoid aversive stimuli. Non-technically. A noxious object or event. Note. there is no d in the word aversive. See also Negative reinforcer; Punisher.

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