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B

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An object or event that already has demonstrated its capability to reinforce an individual's behavior. It is received in exchange for a specific number of tokens, points, or other exchangeable reinforcers. For example, points might be exchanged for the back-up reinforcer of free time. 10
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A reinforcer that may be received in exchange for a token. (See token economy.)
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is any reinforcing event that makes a conditioned reinforcer or a generalize reinforcer effective. When a person obtains a conditioned or generalized reinforcer, he or she can exchange it for other reinforcers. These reinforcers are called backups.
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A method used to train a chained performance. The basic idea is to first train behavior that is closest to primary reinforcement; once responding is established, links in the chain that are farther and farther from primary reinforcement are added. Each link in the chain is reinforced by the SD (which is also a conditioned reinforcer) that signals the next component in the sequence.
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The establishment of the final link in a stimulus-response chain, with the addition of successive links until the first link is acquired.
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A chaining procedure that begins with the last element in the chain and progresses to the first element.
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Effecting the development of a behavioral chain of responses by reinforcing the last response, element, or link in the chain first; the last two next, and so on, until the entire chain is emitted as a single complex behavior. 20
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In the respondent procedure backward conditioning, the US comes on before the CS. The general consensus has been that backward conditioning is unreliable, and many researchers question whether it occurs at all.
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Respondent conditioning in which the CS follows rather than precedes the US. This procedure can be effective with aversive stimuli but is otherwise usually ineffective.
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see TASTE AVERSION

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