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D

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Verbal behavior in which the function of the terms is based on their relation to the speaker (e.g., personal pronouns, here vs. there; this vs. that). In its dependence on discriminations of the speaker's own behavior, deixis shares some properties with autoclitic behavior.
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Respondent conditioning in which the CS is presented for some fixed, extended time period (in most usages, no less than 5 seconds) before the US is presented.
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The time from a response to a later reinforcer. Reinforcers usually lose effectiveness as delay increases, but properties of delay procedures complicate the determination of the delay-of-reinforcement function. In delay procedures that interpose a stimulus between the response and its delayed reinforcer (signaled delay of reinforcement), the stimulus probably functions as an immediate conditioned reinforcer. In procedures that interpose no stimulus, either the delay is extended by additional responses, thereby limiting response rate because a reinforcer is delivered only after a pause equal to the delay interval, or the delay is unaffected by additional responses, thereby allowing the delay to be effectively reduced to the shorter time between those responses and the reinforcer at the end of the delay.
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Stimuli that signal a decrease in time to positive reinforcement, or an increase in time to an aversive event, are more effective conditioned reinforcers. Generally, the value of a conditioned reinforcer is due to its delay reduction how close it is to reinforcement or how far it is from punishment.
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account of conditioned reinforcement. The hypothesis that it is necessary for a stimulus to be paired with a primary reinforcer in order for it to become a conditioned reinforcer. The hypothesis has been largely discounted. and the weight of the evidence supports Edmond Fantino's (1969b) delay-reduction hypothesis. See delay-reduction hypothesis.
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A respondent conditioning procedure in which the CS is presented a few seconds before the US occurs.
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A respondent conditioning procedure in which the CS is presented for a brief period, and after some time the US occurs. Generally, as the time between the CS and US increases, the conditioned response becomes weaker. When compared to delayed conditioning, trace conditioning is not as effective.
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Imitation may occur when a model is present, or it may be delayed for some time after the model is absent. Delayed imitation is often taken as a more complex form of imitation since it involves remembering the modeled stimulus, rather than direct stimulus control.
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Behavior that occurs in a consistent relation to reinforced behavior and that, although reinforcers are not explicitly arranged for it, is maintained because it makes reinforcers more likely. For exam le, a stereotyped pattern of drinking is said to mediate spaced responding if, when the pattern is maintained, the next response is more likely to be late enough after the last response that it will be reinforced; or, two different postures held after one or another sample stimulus are said to mediate delayed matching-to-sample if a correct match is more likely when the organism has held the posture since the sample was presented (e.g., it leans to the right after a red but not a green sample and later is more likely to respond to red rather than green if still leaning to the right). Cf. COLLATERAL BEHAVIOR, SUPER=ON.
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On a matching-to-sample task, the comparison stimuli are presented some time after the sample stimuli are turned off. See also matching to sample.

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