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E

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When there is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and response, verbal behavior may be classified as echoic. A further requirement is that the verbal stimulus and the echoic response must be in the same mode (auditory, visual, etc.) and have exact physical resemblance (e.g., same sound pattern). An echoic is a class of verbal operants regulated by a verbal stimulus in which there is correspondence and topographic similarity between the stimulus and response. Saying "This is a dog" to the spoken stimulus "This is a dog" is an example of an echoic response in human speech.
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A formal verbal class in which a vocal verbal stimulus occasions a corresponding vocal verbal response. The correspondence is defined by the one-to-one relation of verbal units (e.g., phonemes or words), and not by acoustic similarity. Cf. DICTATION-TAKING, TEXTUAL BEHAVIOR, TRANSCRIPTION.
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See REMEMBERING
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Studying behavior in relation to its context-ongoing and previous contingencies. Ecobehavioral assessment considers how a behavior change may affect and be affected by contextual conditions as well as by changes in the social and physical environment. 4
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Food with a reinforcing function. 10
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An assessment that considers whether change occurred as a function of the program, the intervention was implemented as specified, and if the intervention was beneficial to the student and those in his or her environment. 22
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See LAW OF EFFECT
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Sometimes called photographic memory, a rare type of remembering, usually in children, in which visual stimuli are described in detail, as if seen, long after they were presented.
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See REHEARSAL
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A verb used to denote the effect of an antecedent conditioned or unconditioned stimulus on a conditioned or unconditioned response in respondent or classical conditioning of reflexes. In describing the salivary reflex of a dog, we would say that meat elicits salivation. Following conditioning, another stimulus, such as a tone, also might elicit salivation. See also Respondent behavior. 16

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