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F

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A timeout procedure; visual stimuli are contingently blocked by a face cover, such as a cloth, blindfold or hands for a given duration. See also Timeout. 26
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An occasional synonym for potentiation.
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Collateral behavior generated by properties of a schedule of reinforcement. See also adjunctive behavior.
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The systematic, gradual removal of usually artificial or intrusive prompts, or discriminative stimuli such as directions, imitative prompts, physical guidance, and other cues. Used to foster independence from supplemental prompts, and/or to shift control over to the stimuli designated to evoke the response. 18
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Gradually reducing the strength of a prompt.
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A procedure for transferring control of responding from one stimulus or set of stimuli to another by gradually removing one while the other is gradually introduced. Stimuli may be faded in or out (e.g., once a pigeon dates key colors, the discrimination may be transferred to line orientation by maintaining differential reinforcement while gradually decreasing color intensity and increasing line intensity). Cf. SHAPING.
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Disregarding the common usage of the term, fading does not always refer to the disappearance of a stimulus. Sometimes in a fading procedure, a stimulus begins at a low value and is increased in magnitude. Consider, for example, a case where a pigeon pecks (and is reinforced) when the key is red, but not when it is dark. The control by the dark key may be shifted to a green key by first projecting a faint green light on the dark key and then gradually increasing the intensity. If the rate of change of the stimuli is properly paced with the organism's behavior, the control may be shifted from one stimulus to another without any instances of the bird's pecking inappropriately.
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is the procedure by which an added stimulus (prompt) is gradually withdrawn. Fading is used to help establish a simple discrimination.
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The gradual removal of a prompt or other help or cue for responding.
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Fading is a term used to describe a procedure for gradually changing a stimulus controlling an organism's performance to another stimulus. For example, consider a pigeon which pecks at a green key and not at a red one. If a cross is superimposed on the green key and the green color is faded out, the new stimulus will control the bird's behavior without the occurrence of any unreinforced pecking. This is functionally the same procedure which Dr. Sherman used with the mute psychotic man in Chapter Three, Part 1.

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