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An experimental result is shown to have generality when it is observed in different environments, organisms, and so on. For example, the principle of reinforcement generalizes over species, settings, responses, and reinforcers. In a pigeon, the peck-for-food relationship depends on deprivation for food in the immediate past. For humans, who have an extensive capacity for operant conditioning, going to a soda machine to get a cold drink is an effective contingency on a hot afternoon. In both examples, reinforcement is the operating principle.
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See Generalization, response and Generalization, stimulus. 15
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see induction.
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The spread of the effects of reinforcement (or other operations such as extinction or punishment) during one stimulus to other stimuli differing from the original along one or more dimensions. To the extent that responding is similar during two different stimuli, the organism is said to generalize between them (the stimuli are said to be generalized) . If responding is identical during different stimuli, generalization between them is said to be complete (this outcome may also be described as the absence of discrimination or as the organism's failure to attend to the dimension or dimensions along which they differ). Cf. ATTENTION, DISCRIMINATION, INDUCTION, STIMULUS.
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The occurrence of a behavior in the presence of a novel stimulus. Usually the novel stimulus is similar to the SD in a discrimination-training procedure.
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(response induction) The spread of effects to other classes of behavior when one class of behavior is modified by reinforcement, extinction, and so on. For instance, the way a particular letter is shaped or formed may vary in ways that are similar but not identical to the formation of the letter as it was originally reinforced. 29
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The tendency for the effects of training to spread.
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A gradient obtained after reinforcement correlated with a single stimulus (occasionally, in studies of the summation of gradients, two or more stimuli), when no discrimination has been trained between this and other stimuli on the continuum along which the gradient is determined.
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(respondent). Generalization occurs when an organism shows a conditioned response to values of the CS that were not trained during acquisition. A, generalization gradient is the function (graph) that relates stimulus values to a measure of response strength.
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(OPERANT) Generalization occurs when an organism responds to values of the SD (or fewer responses to the Sd) that were not trained during acquisition. A generalization gradient is the function (graph) that relates stimulus values to a measure of response strength.

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