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Browse the glossary using this index

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O

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Recording behavioral data unbiased by the observer's feelings, interpretations, or other extraneous factors. 5
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Learning based on observing the responding of another organism (and/or its consequences). Observational learning need not involve imitation (e.g., organisms may come to avoid aversive stimuli upon seeing what happens when other organisms produce them).
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Acquiring new behavior by observing the actions of others. See also imitation.
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See Direct observational recording.
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Values of the selected dimensional quantities that result from the operation of the transducer.
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A unintended change in the accuracy of an observer's performance.
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A point at which indexes of agreement between observers begin to diverge. 6
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A response that produces or clarifies a discriminative stimulus and that may be maintained by the effectiveness of that stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer. Observing responses are sometimes only inferred (as when a pigeon's head movements are assumed to bring a visual stimulus into view or better focus), but conditions may be arranged to control them (e.g., in matching-to-sample the pigeon may be more likely to observe the sample if a peck on the sample key is required; in a more explicit arrangement, pigeon's pecks on one key may produce the stimuli correlated with the components of a multiple schedule on a second key).
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Measuring performance when the clients or subjects are aware of the ongoing observation.
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An opportunity for a response or some other event, or the circumstances under which a contingency operates, as when discriminative stimuli set the occasion on which responses have some consequence. When a stimulus is said to occasion a response, the term serves as a verb and distinguishes responses emitted in the presence of discriminative stimuli from those elicited by stimuli in a reflex relation.

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