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R

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Reinforcements are programmed according to the number of responses emitted by the organism.
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Response-based schedules of reinforcement.
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A schedule in which reinforcement is delivered contingent on the last of a number of responses. (a) Fixed ratio (FR) schedule-A reinforcement schedule in which a constant number of responses must occur prior to the reinforced response. For example, an FR 3 schedule indicates that each third response is reinforced. (b) Variable ratio (VR) schedule A schedule in which a variable number of responses must occur prior to the reinforced response. The number of responses usually varies around a specified average. For example, a VR 6 means that an average of one of six performances is reinforced. 32
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See Schedules of reinforcement.
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The appearance of pauses in VR responding, or in FR responding at times other than after a reinforcer (cf. POSTREINFORCEMENT PAUSE); a result of large ratio size and/or low reinforcement frequency.
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A reduction in the rate of a target behavior and an increase in emotional behavior resulting from an increase in the ratio of behavior to reinforcement. (See stretching the ratio.)
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A disruption of responding that occurs when a ratio schedule is increased rapidly.
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A disruption in performance when ratio requirements are very high or are raised abruptly. An individual is said to be suffering from "ratio strain" when previously high rates of responding disintegrate. Ratio strain is avoided by increasing ratio requirements very gradually. It is treated by temporarily reducing the ratio requirement. 32
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describes the fact that a behavior that is seldom reinforced (for instance, once every 1000 responses) may slow or stop altogether.
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See Task analysis. 20

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