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U

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A stimulus, object, or event, such as a painful electric shock, a bee sting, or a sudden loud noise, that functions aversively in the absence of any prior learning history (i.e., its contingent occurrence is punishing). 27
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See UNCONDITIONED REFLEX.
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A relation between a stimulus and a response that does not depend on prior conditioning. A reflex is the reliable production of a response by a stimulus. The stimulus is an unconditioned stimulus (US), and the response is an unconditioned response (UR). The stimulus is said to elicit the response. Examples of unconditioned reflexes are the salivary reflex (salivation elicited by food or acid in the mouth) and the patellar reflex (a knee jerk elicited by a blow on the patellar tendon). In each case, the elicitation of the response by the stimulus, not the response alone or the stimulus alone, defines the reflex. Cf. RESPONDENT.
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A stimulus, such as food, water, or sexual activity, that usually is reinforcing in the absence of any prior learning history; often used interchangeably with primary reinforcer. 9 Validity. The extent to which measures actually measure what they are purported to measure. 5
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An autonomic response that requires no previous learning. Other respondent behavior may be conditioned, as in Pavlov's famous experiments with the conditioning of dogs' salivation responses. See also Elicit. 16
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All organisms are born with a set of reflexes (US - UR). These relationships are invariant and biologically based. The behavior elicited by the US is called the unconditioned response (UR).
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An unconditioned response (reflex behavior) is the behavior elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. Such behavior frequently influences the internal economy of the organism. The form is usually determined by the organism's phylogenetic history.
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An unlearned response elicited by the presentation of an unconditioned stimulus.
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Responses in which the class of eliciting stimuli has this function without a history of being paired with unconditioned stimuli.
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All organisms are born with a set of reflexes (US - UR). These relationships are invariant and biologically based. The eliciting event is called the unconditioned stimulus (US).

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