Measurement, graphing, and data analysis

Professional Tools and Resources for Behavior Analysts

hosted at Science of Behavior – www.scienceofbehavior.com

This page is a work in progress.


Measurement

Guides and Resources:

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/GuideTargetBx/target-11 ]Selecting the Target Behavior
Click above for a step-by-step guide to selecting target problem behavior and various types of alternative behaviors (e.g., replacement, incompatible, desired behavior). [ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/GuideDefineBx/define-11 ]Defining Behavior
Click above for a step-by-step guide to defining behavior.

[ http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/case_studies/ICS-015.pdf ]IRIS Center – Defining Behavior
Click above for a resource that provides directions, examples, and non-examples for defining target problem and alternative (replacement) behaviors.      Tip: Find the STAR Sheets and see page 12.
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/docs/TargetBxPrioritize.pdf ]Prioritizing Target Behaviors
Click above for a one-page form that assists a team in prioritization when there are multiple behavioral concerns.  [ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measselect/decision-11 ]Selecting Measurement Method
Click above for a step-by-step guide to selecting the optimal measurement procedure and recording form.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Recording Forms, Tips, and Tools:

Frequency Measurement

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/Frequency.doc ]Frequency Form – MS Word

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/Frequency.pdf ]Frequency Form – PDF

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/Frequency-sample.pdf ]Frequency Form – sample
Interval or Time Sample Measurement

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10Obs5Rec-CBarthold.mp3 ][Image] Interval/Time Sample Audio Cue Recording –
10 sec. “Observe” intervals followed by 5 second recording intervals in a 15 min. observation session.
Thanks to Christine Barthold of the Steppingstones Project!
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10Obs-5RecMP3-CBarthold.zip ]Audio cue zip file – 9.1mb – Download, Save & Click to decompress this file

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec15min.doc ]Interval/Time Sample Record – 10 sec. intervals – 15 min. observation session – Word
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec15min.pdf ]PDF version
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec15min-sample.pdf ]Sample
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[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec-10min-5bx.xlsx ]Interval/Time Sample Record – 5 behavior columns – 10 sec. intervals – 10 min. observation session – Excel
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec-10min-5bx.pdf ]PDF version

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec10min.doc ]Interval/Time Sample Record – 10 sec. intervals – 10 min. observation session – Word
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/10sec10min.pdf ]PDF version

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/15sec15min.doc ]Interval/Time Sample Record – 15 sec. intervals – 15 min. observation session – Word
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/15sec15min.pdf ]PDF version
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/FreqRecord-Graph.pdf ]Frequency Form That Makes a Graph

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/FreqRecord-Graph-sample.pdf ]Frequency Form That Makes a Graph – sample    Tip: Use recorded audio cues to improve interval data accuracy. Cues can easily be recorded on a mobile device, smart phone, smart watch, CD, MP3 player, etc.
• For interval recording, recorded voice cues may be someone saying “Observe” (followed by the designated number of minutes/seconds) and then “Record” (followed by a few seconds to mark the form.) See sample above.
• For interval recording or momentary time sampling, use recorded beeps or tones to signal the start/end of intervals.

Tip: If a student reacts to audio cues, try earbuds or headphones.
Tip: Consider using A-B-C forms !!!
(available in the “Tier 3 Individual FBA-BIP” tab).

A-B-C forms may yield multiple valuable measures:
* frequency
* duration per occurrence
* total duration
plus the bonus of a pattern analysis !!!

Tip: Use automated cues as an alternative to recorded cues. An [ http://www.online-stopwatch.com/countdown-clock/ ]online countdown timer and alarm ([ http://www.online-stopwatch.com/countdown-clock/full-screen/ ]same timer – full screen version) or [ http://www.difflearn.com/category/timers_counters_clocks/a ]one of several devices can remind you when to observe and record. (Muting your device permits silent operation.)

Mobile device, smart phone, and smart watch applications can give audio and/or vibration cues. Check the many options available at Android and Apple app stores. Some devices (e.g., iPhones) may limit the number of cues unless settings are adjusted.

The [ http://www.habitchange.com/ ]Motiv-Aider is available at Android and Apple app stores ($2-3), and as a small portable device ($50).

When you find a good app, please [ mailto: kevin.murdock@sdhc.k12.fl.us ]share the news so it can be posted here for others!
[ http://www.enasco.com/product/SB16447M ]Hand Tally Counter (mechanical)

This small device is inexpensive and can be carried for easy recording of behavior frequency. Beware of reactivity since it makes a slight clicking sound that may be noticed by the student being observed. This device is listed on the HCPS “cart page”.
Duration or Latency Measurement

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/duration.doc ]Duration Form- MS Word
[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/duration.pdf ]Duration Form – PDF

[ fcp://@newideas.sdhc.k12.fl.us,%237700058/ICHome/ICR/measures/duration-sample.pdf ]Duration Form – sample
[ http://tallycounterstore.com/ ]Tally Counters (electronic and mechanical)
[ http://www.difflearn.com/product/Electronic_Tally_Counter/timers_counters_clocks ]Hand Tally Counter (electronic)

The above websites offer a wide variety of relatively inexpensive counters that can be carried for easy recording of behavior frequency. Counters that work in a silent mode can reduce reactivity during observations (rather than those that click audibly).
Tip: Consider using A-B-C forms !!!
(available in the “Tier 3 Individual FBA-BIP” tab).

A-B-C forms may yield multiple valuable measures:
* duration per occurrence
* total duration
* frequency
plus the bonus of a pattern analysis !!!
Low-tech frequency measurement options: use a short (e.g., golf) pencil to mark an index card (wear pencil and card on lanyard or carry in pocket); place short piece of masking tape on back of your hand and mark it – later remove and place tape on data recording sheet; slide beads on a lanyard or string; move beans or paper clips from one pocket to another; wear a carpenter’s apron and move items from one pocket to another; move rubber bands from one arm to another More duration measurement options:
* Wall clock/wrist watch with sweep second hand or digital display
* Stopwatch
* [ http://www.online-stopwatch.com/ ]Online Stopwatch for recording duration or latency
* Kitchen timer device

Frequency measurement applications for mobile devices, smart phones, and smart watches are available in the Apple and Android stores! These can be very efficient for data recording.

When you find a good app, please [ mailto: kevin.murdock@sdhc.k12.fl.us ]share the news so it can be posted here for others! Duration measurement applications for mobile devices, smart phones, and smart watches are available in the Apple and Android stores! These can be very efficient for data recording.

When you find a good app, please [ mailto: kevin.murdock@sdhc.k12.fl.us ]share the news so it can be posted here for others!
Free charts available at various websites can be used to record some types of behavior and to display progress.
Some of the charts at the following two websites may also work well with a Behavior Contract:
[ http://www.freeprintablebehaviorcharts.com/singlebehaviorcharts.htm ]Free Printable Behavior Charts          [ http://www.latitudes.org/behavioral_charts.html ]Behavior Charts (ages 4-10)
Caution: These two websites include other resources and links, including recommendations for interventions. Before selecting any intervention, work with the experts on your school’s problem solving team to confirm the intervention is evidence-based and linked to the function of the behavior. Then, get appropriate training and consultation (if needed), and assure team consensus before using such interventions.


Graphing

    • Why Use Graphs?Click here for answers
    • What Are the Parts of a Basic Line Graph?Click here for answers
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  • “Low-tech” Resources:
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